The Perseverance rover has captured its first two slices of Mars.

NASA’s most recent Mars rover drilled into a flat rock nicknamed Rochette on September 1 and stuffed a about finger-sized tube with stone. The sample is the first at any time destined to be despatched back to Earth for further examine. On September 7, the rover snagged a 2nd sample from the same rock. Both are now stored in airtight tubes within the rover’s human body.

Acquiring pairs of samples from each individual rock it drills is “a very little little bit of an insurance coverage plan,” suggests deputy job scientist Katie Stack Morgan of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab in Pasadena, Calif. It indicates the rover can fall identical shops of samples in two unique sites, boosting chances that a potential mission will be in a position to select up at the very least one particular established.

The prosperous drilling is a comeback tale for Perseverance. The rover’s first attempt to acquire a little bit of Mars ended with the sample crumbling to dust, leaving an empty tube (SN: 8/19/21). Scientists assume that rock was way too delicate to keep up to the drill.

Even so, the rover persevered.

“Even nevertheless some of its rocks are not, Mars is hard,” said Lori Glaze, director of NASA’s  planetary science division, in a September 10 news briefing.

Rochette is a challenging rock that appears to have been a lot less severely eroded by millennia of Martian climate (SN: 7/14/20). (Enjoyable truth: All the rocks Perseverance drills into will get names linked to national parks the location on Mars the rover is now discovering is named Mercantour, so the name Rochette — or “Little Rock”  — will come from a village in France near Mercantour Nationwide Park.)

Rover measurements of the rock’s texture and chemistry indicates that it is made of basalt and could have been part of an historical lava stream. That’s practical due to the fact volcanic rocks maintain their ages properly, Stack Morgan states. When experts on Earth get their palms on the sample, they’ll be equipped to use the concentrations of specific aspects and isotopes to figure out exactly how aged the rock is — a thing that is never ever been performed for a pristine Martian rock.

Rochette also has salt minerals that in all probability formed when the rock interacted with drinking water above very long time intervals. That could propose groundwater relocating via the Martian subsurface, possibly developing habitable environments within just the rocks, Stack Morgan states.

“It really feels like this loaded treasure trove of data for when we get this sample back,” Stack Morgan states.

As soon as a long run mission provides the rocks back again to Earth, researchers can look for inside of all those salts for little fluid bubbles that may well be trapped there. “That would give us a glimpse of Jezero crater at the time when it was wet and was capable to sustain ancient Martian life,” stated planetary scientist Yulia Goreva of JPL at the news briefing.

Experts will have to be affected individual, though — the earliest any samples will make it back again to Earth is 2031. But it is however a historic milestone, says planetary scientist Meenakshi Wadhwa of Arizona Condition University in Tempe.

“These signify the commencing of Mars sample return,” said Wadhwa stated at the information briefing. “I’ve dreamed of getting samples back again from Mars to evaluate in my lab since I was a graduate pupil. We’ve talked about Mars sample return for a long time. Now it is beginning to truly truly feel actual.”